Cast & Crew
At the end of World War I, Jake Barnes, an American soldier serving in Italy, decides to remain in Europe and resume his newspaper career at the Paris office of the Herald , joining the legion of expatriates who haunt the Left Bank. One day, Robert Cohn, a moneyed young man who aspires to be a novelist, visits Jake at his office. Suffering from ennui , Robert tries to persuade Jake to accompany him to South America, but Jake has already made arrangements to go to Spain. In the park, Jake shares a drink with Georgette, a world-weary prostitute, and then invites her to dinner. As the evening wears on, Georgette wonders why Jake has no sexual interest in her, and Jake explains that he was injured in the war. At a dance club, Jack chances upon Robert and facetiously introduces Georgette as his fiancée to a crass American couple. When Lady Brett Ashley enters the room, Robert is stunned by her beauty. Ignoring Robert, Brett greets Jake and asks him to dance. On the dance floor, Brett impulsively tells Jake that she loves him and asks him to leave with her. In a taxi, the two kiss and Brett then announces that she plans to marry Mike Campbell, a wealthy Scotsman. While stopping at another bar, Brett and Jake run into Robert again. After the crowd from the previous club arrives at the bar, Jake declares he is sickened by the "whole show." Questioned by Robert about Brett, Jake replies that she is an American whose English husband was killed during the war and cautions that she is a drunk and a drifter. That night, while lying in bed, Jake stares at the ceiling and dreams about his war injury. As Jake is being anesthetized prior to surgery, his last image is of Brett, in a nurse's uniform, comforting him. Throughout Jake's convalescence, Brett remains by his side, but upon learning that his wound has rendered him impotent, Jake disassociates himself from her. Jake is roused from his dream by Brett's voice, and when he gets up, he finds her standing outside his door with Count Mippipopolous, an admirer, bearing an armload of champagne. After a toast, Brett leaves with the count, returns to embrace Jake and then dashes out. The next day, Jake's boisterous friend Bill Gorton comes to Paris to accompany Jake on his sojourn through Spain. Upon arriving in Pamplona for the running of the bulls, Jake learns that Robert, Brett and Mike are also there. As the group assembles to watch the unloading of the bulls, Jake fumes at Brett for picking up Robert in San Sebastian. Mike, drunk and jealous, bellicosely declares that he is bankrupt and insults Robert. The next day, during the running of the bulls, Mike drunkenly waves his bounced check at one of the bulls. In the bullring, Pedro Romero, a dashing young bullfighter, singles Brett out of the audience. Later, at the hotel bar, Jake invites Pedro to join them for a drink and Brett expresses her admiration for his prowess. After a besotted Mike insults Robert once again, Brett confides to Jake that she has realized Mike is the wrong man for her. When Brett complains that Mike and Robert are behaving badly, Jake remarks upon her complicity in the situation. Later, Brett begins to flirt with Pedro at yet another bar. Jake, disgusted, leaves, and tormented by posters touting Pedro, flings a glass of red wine at one of them. Soon after, Mike, still inebriated, appears with a señorita on each arm, followed by Robert. When Jake refuses to tell Robert where Brett can be found, Robert, a former college boxing champion, slugs him, then notices the stained poster and storms out of the room. Bursting into Brett's hotel room, Robert finds Pedro there and in a jealous rage, starts pummeling the slight matador. The next morning, Jake, Bill and Mike gather at the town square and when Brett announces that Pedro is seriously injured, the boorish Mike knocks over their bar table. Asking Jake to walk with her, Brett stops in a church to pray and then appeals to Jake to look after Mike. That afternoon in the bullring, Pedro bows to Brett and then confronts the bull. When the crowd calls for more dynamism, Pedro, bruised and in pain, exuberantly kills the animal. Afterward, Brett goes to congratulate Pedro, and Robert apologizes to Jake for his behavior, explaining that he was hopelessly in love with Brett, but now plans to return to America to work things out with his mistress. Jake then proceeds to Brett's hotel room, where a drunken Mike informs him that she has run away with Pedro. As the town's festivities come to a close, Bill, Mike and Jake muse about their future. Mike, flat broke, plans to venture to the Riviera where he can live on credit. Bill is to sail for New York and Jake is going to Biarritz to relax before returning to work. Upon learning that Pedro has cancelled his next bullfight, Jake feels remorse for allowing Brett to derail the young man's life. In Biarritz, Jake receives an urgent telegram from Brett, begging him to join her in Madrid. There, Brett confides that fearful of destroying Pedro, she forced him to leave. After confiding that she had hoped Pedro would make her forget Jake, Brett asks Jake to take her with him and he consents. Leaving her belongings behind, Brett climbs into a cab with Jake and, after declaring that Jake is the only man she could ever love, Brett holds out hope that there may be an answer for them somewhere.
Carlos David Ortigosa
Ricardo Adalid Black
Claudia Eckert Noonan
Charles [g.] Clarke
Fontana Sisters, Rome
Paul S. Fox
David Scott Mcewen
Edward B. Powell
Walter M. Scott
Lyle R. Wheeler
Darryl F. Zanuck
Darryl F. Zanuck
The Sun Also Rises
In 1958, shortly after completing a public service commercial about the importance of medical checkups, he headed to Spain to film Solomon and Sheba (1959) with King Vidor, Gina Lollobrigida, and his old friend and colleague, George Sanders. After having filmed most of his scenes, he collapsed with a heart attack during a swordfight with Sanders. He died on the way to the hospital, replaced by Yul Brynner (you can spot Power in some of the long shots). Power's end eerily echoed the circumstances of the death of his actor father, who died in his son's arms while filming The Miracle Man (1932) in 1931. The Powers had been an acting family since the early 19th century, when the first Tyrone Power, from a landed family in Ireland, worked his way to prominence. The subject of this article, although professionally known as Jr., was actually the third member of his family to bear that name. The family and its relations were extensive. Among this Tyrone Power's distant relatives were Tyrone Guthrie and Laurence Olivier. The latter read a poem at Powers' burial in 1958. Flying overhead in tribute to their mutual love of aviation was director Henry King.
Which brings us to the eleventh film in which King directed Power, The Sun Also Rises (1957). With a cast headed by Power, Ava Gardner, Mel Ferrer, Errol Flynn, Eddie Albert and Juliette Greco, Ernest Hemingway's breakout novel of 1926 was given the CinemaScope treatment. It's a dubious asset, even if it might have succeeded in prying a few audience members away from their TV sets. Power had experience playing an existential hero trying to make sense of life in The Razor's Edge (1946). But he's defeated by the material - as are the others. Power's Hemingway stand-in, Jake Barnes, is, like all these WW I-traumatized characters, damaged. The book's reputation rests on Hemingway's chiseled prose, with its intended iceberg quality of making us feel the presence of much more beneath its surface. The film is almost all surface. In its day, it gained fame by supposedly capturing and defining the so-called Lost Generation, who couldn't go back home and resume their lives, and so lived the disconnected lives of expatriates spinning their wheels. Here, though, they don't muster much pulse or tone, much less style.
The mood among the desperate partiers isn't fizzy. It's sullen, irritated, deflated. Power's stoic Jake, although left impotent by a war wound (we won't go into its significance in view of Hemingway's preoccupation with his masculinity!), is the only morally sound one among them. That's because he works, churning out articles conscientiously for the Paris Herald-Tribune. The rest, unanchored, are weighed down by ennui. Their collective substitution of desperation for real energy creates problems. Jake's impotence guarantees frustration with Ava Gardner's war widow of a British aristocrat. Because she can't sleep with Jake, she sleeps with everyone else. Power's air of exhausted forbearance indicates that he wasn't in the best of health during filming. And as the others careen around looking to refresh their lives, the film perhaps inevitably mirrors their lack of real energy, even the energy of submerged, unexpressed tension.
Most of the action in The Sun Also Rises takes the form of men over-boisterously indulging in various forms of chest-thumping while they take turns being undone by Gardner's Circe-like Lady Brett Ashley. The book opens with the sentence, "Robert Cohn was once middleweight boxing champion of Princeton." He's the saddest of the lot, even though the film tiptoes around the anti-Semitism that made him put the gloves on and climb into the ring. He spends the film being told what a fifth wheel he is and asked why he doesn't just go away, especially by Errol Flynn's wasted Scotsman, Mike Campbell, who believes he's engaged to Lady Brett. Mel Ferrer's Cohn does finally leave, worse off than ever, having lost Jake's friendship and never enjoying a repeat of his brief fling with Lady Brett, who tells him she can't stand his air of suffering. At least he gets to punch out Flynn's boor (a performance that's funnier than it ought to be!). If Ferrer's character tries too hard, though, the film doesn't try hard enough.
The book's real subject is hollowness and emptiness -- not the stuff of absorbing films. And so as they flail about with what seems more petulance than passion, the film fizzles. In the absence of real dramatic or emotional crackle, we find ourselves snatching at bits of enjoyment from the edges of the film - Gregory Ratoff's wolfish nightclubbing count, putting moves on Gardner; Marcel Dalio's maitre d' looking like something out of La Boheme; and Robert Evans (yes, that Robert Evans) as the young bullfighter Gardner plays with after his triumph in the corrida. When members of the cast and crew wanted him fired, Zanuck, reminding them who was boss, said, "The kid stays in the picture," furnishing producer-to-be Evans with the title of his eventual autobiography. Zanuck also made sure Juliette Greco, whom he was dating at the time, was in the picture, in the inexplicable role of a sullen streetwalker, inexplicable because one wonders why Jake, given his impotence, secured her services.
Time has not been kind to the bullfight sequences so dear to Hemingway. Before Bogart and W.C. Fields became the poster boys of mid-century college dorms and frat houses, bullfight posters were the décor of choice. But does anyone take this stuff seriously today? It plays like self-parody, not the quintessential expression of male existential purity Hemingway thought it to be. Is it any wonder one invariably finds oneself rooting for the bull? Although most of the Spanish sequences were filmed in Mexico, the Pamplona scenes and the running of the bulls are the real thing. So are the Pyrenees (where Jake goes fishing with Albert's crony). Ditto for Biarritz and the Paris sequences. What's surprisingly anachronistic, even more than the odd automobile, is that so few of the clothes say Paris, 1922, when the story unfolds. One understands the temptation to go with a feather cut instead of bobbed hair for Gardner. One understands even more fully the impulse to costume her in various scoop necklines and A-line ensembles. As usual, she's easy to look at, but this is not one of her memorably sexy roles. Nor anyone's, really. In this Spain, everyone becomes an instant Spaniard with the addition of scarlet sashes and berets. And don't get me started on the use of Cole Porter's "You Do Something to Me," written in 1929, as its theme song! This take on The Sun Also Rises is much more about the time it was filmed than about the time it's supposed to be taking place. With its wall-to-wall compositions, it's more about wideness than about Hemingway.
Producer: Darryl F. Zanuck
Director: Henry King
Screenplay: Peter Viertel (screenplay); Ernest Hemingway (novel)
Cinematography: Leo Tover
Art Direction: Mark-Lee Kirk, Lyle R. Wheeler
Music: Hugo Friedhofer
Film Editing: William Mace
Cast: Tyrone Power (Jake Barnes), Ava Gardner (Lady Brett Ashley), Mel Ferrer (Robert Cohn), Errol Flynn (Mike Campbell), Eddie Albert (Bill Gorton), Gregory Ratoff (Count Mippipopolous), Juliette Greco (Georgette Aubin), Marcel Dalio (Zizi), Henry Daniell (Doctor), Bob Cunningham (Harris).
by Jay Carr
The Sun Also Rises
Eddie Albert (1906-2005)
The son of a real estate agent, Albert was born Edward Albert Heimberger in Rock Island, Ill., on April 22, 1906. His family relocated to Minneapolis when he was still an infant. Long entralled by theatre, he studied drama at the University of Minnesota. After years of developing his acting chops in touring companies, summer stock and a stint with a Mexican circus, he signed a contract with Warner Bros. and made his film debut in Brother Rat (1938). Although hardly a stellar early film career, he made some pleasant B-pictures, playing slap happy youths in Brother Rat and a Baby (1940), and The Wagons Roll at Night (1941).
His career was interrupted for military service for World War II, and after his stint (1942-45), he came back and developed a stronger, more mature screen image: Smash-Up: The Story of a Woman (1947); Carrie (1952); his Oscar® nominated turn as the Bohemian photographer friend of Gregory Peck in Roman Holiday (1953); a charming Ali Hakim in Oklahoma (1955); and to many critics, his finest hour as an actor, when he was cast unnervingly against type as a cowardly military officer whose lack of commitment to his troops results in their deaths in Attack! (1956).
As he settled into middle-age, Albert discovered belated fame when he made the move to Hooterville. For six seasons (1965-71), television viewers loved Eddie Albert as Oliver Wendal Douglas, the bemused city slicker who, along with his charming wife Lisa (Eva Gabor), takes a chance on buying a farm in the country and dealing with all the strange characters that come along their way. Of course, I'm talking about Green Acres. If he did nothing else, Alberts proved he could be a stalwart straight man in the most inane situations, and pull it off with grace.
After the run of Green Acres, Albert found two of his best roles in the late stages of his career that once again cast him against his genial, good-natured persona: the fiercly overprotective father of Cybill Shepherd in The Heartbreak Kid (1972), for which he earned his second Oscar® nomination; and the sadistic warden in Robert Aldrich's raucous gridiron comedy The Longest Yard (1974). Soon, Albert was in demand again, and he had another hit series, playing a retired police officer who partners with a retired con artist (Robert Wagner) to form a detective agency in Switch (1975-78).
The good roles slowed down slightly by the dawn of the '80s, both film: The Concorde: Airport '79 (1979), How to Beat the High Co$t of Living (1980), Take This Job and Shove It (1981); and television: Highway to Heaven, Murder, She Wrote, Thirtysomething, offered him little in the way of expansion. Yet, Albert spent his golden years in a most admirable fashion, he became something of activist for world health and pollution issues throughout the latter stages of his life. It is widely acknowledged that International Earth Day (April 22) is honored on his birthday for his tireless work on environemental matters. Albert was married to famed hispanic actress Margo (1945-85) until her death, and is survived by his son, actor Edward Albert, a daughter, and two granddaughters.
by Michael T. Toole
Eddie Albert (1906-2005)
Do you always kill your friends?- Lady Brett Ashley
Yes, so they do not kill me.- Pedro Romero
You don't like Paris?- Jake Barnes
Why don't you go somewhere else?- Jake Barnes
There isn't anywhere else.- Georgette
I never make plans.- Lady Brett Ashley
Don't try to tell me how to live with myself! I know all about that. It's just living with other people that gets to be tough once in a while.- Jake Barnes
As detailed in his autobiography, "The Kid Stays in the Picture", both cast and crew, Ernest Hemingway, 'Tyrone Power' , and Ava Gardner included, attempted to have Robert Evans fired during production. Producer 'Daryl F. Zanuck' refused, which lead to Evans' long career as a producer.
The film's title card reads: "Darryl F. Zanuck's Production of Ernest Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises." The picture begins with the image of a sunrise over Paris. An offscreen narrator then recites a quotation from Ecclesiastes, "One generation passes away and another generation comes, but the earth abides forever...the sun also rises and the sun goes down and hastens to the place he arose." The picture ends in the same manner, except the narration concludes after the words "The sun also rises." After the opening credits are completed, the image changes to modern Paris and the narrator continues, "This is the Paris of today. Our story deals with another Paris, the Paris of 1922, shortly after what used to be called the Great War. We were part of that spectacular lost generation of young people who continued to live as though they were to die...we lived across the river on the Left Bank in the Bohemian world of poets, painters and writers."
The filming of Hemingway's novel had a long gestation period. In April 1934, actress Ann Harding purchased the rights to the novel, intending to star as "Lady Brett Ashley," according to materials contained in the MPAA/PCA file on the film at the AMPAS Library. Leslie Howard was to play "Jake." In December 1944, Constance Bennett considered buying the rights from Harding, and planned to star in and produce the project for United Artists release, according to a September 1944 Hollywood Reporter news item. According to a March 1949 Los Angeles Times news item, Howard Hawks purchased the rights from Harding in 1949. At that time, Montgomery Clift and Margaret Sheridan were to star in Hawks's production for Twentieth Century-Fox. In 1952, Hawks left Fox to pursue a career as an independent producer-director, and took the property with him, which he intended to produce in Europe starring Dewey Martin, according to a December 1952 Daily Variety news item. By 1955, Hawks agreed to sell his interest in the novel back to Fox, but still planned to direct the film, according to an October 1955 Daily Variety news item.
Correspondence between the would-be producers and the PCA during these years reveals why the project was so difficult to bring to fruition: In Hemingway's novel, Jake's war injuries resulted in his impotence and Lady Brett was depicted as a nymphomaniac. The PCA deemed the issues of impotence and nyphomania as "not proper for screen presentation," and thought the novel to be "salacious," its characters "promiscuous and immoral." After Fox bought the rights in 1955, a new approach to the topic was suggested that finally won approval from the PCA. In a memo, Twentieth Century-Fox production chief Darryl F. Zanuck proposed dropping all explicit references to Jake's impotence, thus divorcing it from a specific physical reason and instead putting it in the abstract realm of a "war injury." Zanuck's other tactic was to portray Lady Brett's problem not as nymphomania, but rather excessive drinking. Although the project finally won approval from the PCA because of these changes, in the final film, in Jake's dream sequence, which flashes back to his time at the hospital, Jake is explicitly told by the "Doctor" (Henry Daniell), that he is impotent.
In October 1956, a Hollywood Reporter news item announced that Henry King was to direct and Walter Reisch was to produce the film. Although a screenplay written by Reisch is contained in the Twentieth Century-Fox Records of the Legal Department at the UCLA Arts-Special Collections Library, Reisch's contribution to the released film has not been determined. The legal records also add that Ben Wright was originally to play the doctor and José Ángel Espinosa was to appear as "Zizi."
The city of Morelia, Mexico doubled for Pamplona, Spain, according to a May 1957 New York Times article. Charles Clarke shot the annual running of the bulls in Pamplona. According to a May 1957 Hollywood Reporter news item, location filming also took place in Paris and Biarritz, France. Zanuck directed some of the French sequences while Henry King was filming in Mexico. Studio publicity items contained in the film's production file at the AMPAS Library add that some interiors were shot at the Estudios Churubusco in Mexico City, Mexico. Modern sources note that Jorge Stahl, Jr. worked as director of photography, Manuel Topete was sound recordist, Roberto Silva served as art director and Luis Sánchez Tello served as production manager.
Actor and future producer Robert Evans, who portrayed "Pedro Romero" in the film, entitled his autobiography The Kid Stays in the Picture because, according to Evans, during production of The Sun Also Rises, when King and others felt that Evans was not up to the role and should be replaced, Zanuck sent a telegram to King stating "The kid stays in the picture." Zanuck, King and Ava Gardner had previously worked together on the 1953 film The Snows of Kilimanjaro. The Sun Also Rises marked the American screen debut of Juliette Greco. In 1984, NBC TV produced a miniseries based on Hemingway's work, starring Jane Seymour and Hart Bochner and directed by James Goldstone.
Released in United States Fall September 1957
Released in United States Fall September 1957