Cast & Crew
Overwhelmed by bill collectors, Mary Sims and her unemployed husband John eagerly accept the proposal of Mary's uncle Anthony to move from the city and farm a tract of fallow land on which Anthony has been paying mortgage. Soon after the young New Yorkers arrive at the ramshackled farm, however, they realize that, their enthusiasm not withstanding, they are ill-equipped to restore the barren land. Consequently, when Chris Larsen, a dispossessed, Swedish farmer from Minnesota, is stopped alongside the Sims's field with a flat tire, John suggests that, in exchange for his farming expertise, he and his family live on his land and share in the farm's output. After Chris accepts the offer, John is seized with an idea that other unemployed but skilled men could benefit the farm effort and, the next day, puts signs along the highway advertising work for ten men with trades. To his surprise, the signs bring in dozens of men and their families, all of whom beg John for a chance to work hard. Although only some of the men have labor skills, John accepts every one into the group, and after all the families agree to pool their meager resources, the group, which includes a Jewish and an Italian family, elects John "boss" of the operation. Working together as a collective, the men till the land and plant corn seeds, while the women make homes out of hand-built shacks. Eventually, corn seedlings sprout, and a baby boy is born to the Jewish family. However, the joy of the collective is soon tempered by the realization that, because no mortgage payments have been made on the land, the farm is to be auctioned by the county sheriff. At the auction, the potential buyers are intimidated into silence by the group, and the sheriff is forced to sell the farm for $1.85 to a member of the collective. Soon after, Sally, a tough-talking platinum blonde, drives up to the farm during a rainstorm and, when she learns that her drunken male companion has just died, accepts Mary's offer to stay. As Mary grapples with the growing food shortage, Sally begins to flirt with John and ignores the warnings of the taciturn but loyal Louie Fuente to leave John alone. When the food shortage nears the crisis point, Louie goes to Chris and, after showing him a poster that identifies him as a fugitive, offers to turn himself in for the $500 reward. Although Chris refuses to help Louie, Sally agrees to pose as Mary in town and collect the reward money. After Sally returns to the farm with the money, John arranges for the group lawyer to plead Louie's case in court. Assured that Louie will serve a minimum sentence, the group spends the reward money, and the hunger crisis passes. Soon, however, the corn is plagued by drought, and total crop failure appears imminent. As the dry days drag on, the community falls into despair, and John is filled with self-doubt. When Mary hears John talk scathingly about the farm, she suspects Sally is behind his unhappiness and confronts her rival directly. Sally confesses to loving John and threatens to leave the farm with him in tow. Unable to resist Sally's seductive pull, John sneaks away with her the next night, but is soon stopped on the road by a vision of Louie. With Louie's disapproving face still lingering in his mind, John notices that the local power plant has resumed operation and has filled a nearby stream with water run-off. Inspired with an idea, John dumps Sally and rushes back to the farm. After gathering the disillusioned group together, John proposes that, if they work day and night, they can build a trench from the stream and divert enough water to save the corn. Although skeptical at first, the group pledges to make the effort, and after two backbreaking days, the trench is built and the crops are salvaged. As water rushes into the parched corn field, a reunited John and Mary embrace.
Nellie V. Nichols
Three Milsfield Children
Captain C. E. Anderson
Edward Peil Sr.
Our Daily Bread (1934)
The couple gets a needed leg up when Mary's uncle tells the jobless John about some farm land he owns far from their city lives. With no farming experience but plenty of ambition, John sets out to become a farmer. When an immigrant Minnesota farmer (John Qualen) and his family also searching for work run out of gas at the Sims farm, they become the first worker/residents in a unique experiment. John Sims opens his land to dozens of skilled men and women also out of work. They create a communal farm where everything money, livestock, food is shared for the common good. But the Edenic community is jeopardized, first when the land is put up for auction and then, when a devastating drought threatens to kill the first corn crop. John's interest in the farm is likewise threatened by the arrival of a seductive vamp (Barbara Pepper) who aims to pluck the handsome labor leader off the farm. Director Vidor admitted that the floozy with the Jean Harlow platinum hair was brought in purely for box office.
Like so many directors before him, Texas-born Vidor began in Hollywood filling a number of roles, first as an extra, then as a script-clerk and then as a writer in the story department at Universal. When his mentor, George Brown, left Universal to start his own company, Vidor was brought on as a director for his Brentwood Company. His first feature was The Turn in the Road (1919) inspired by the teachings of Christian Science, a harbinger of the director's lifelong interest in films with a social message and metaphysical content.
Vidor's first certifiable "smash" was the film he called "an honest war picture". Until then they'd all been very phony, glorifying officers and warfare." His The Big Parade (1925) was based on the Laurence Stallings play What Price Glory? and according to the director, it "put me on the map." The enormously successful picture led to a long-term deal with MGM and affirmed Vidor's status as a courted, important screen auteur.
"There were no Academy Awards at the time," said Vidor in The Celluloid Muse. "But, had we had them, I probably would have swept the whole field. It was a tremendous triumph."
Vidor went on to direct a number of notable pictures including the film Irving Thalberg dubbed Vidor's "experimental" work, The Crowd (1928), whose star James Murray would end up an alcoholic suicide. Equally innovative was Vidor's first sound film, the all-black musical Hallelujah! (1929), although some felt it was condescending toward its characters. The Champ (1931), Stella Dallas (1937), Duel in the Sun (1946) and The Fountainhead (1949) all followed.
Vidor was listed in the Guinness Book of World Records for having the longest career as a film director, spanning 67 years. Vidor also directed the black and white segments of The Wizard of Oz (1939) when Victor Fleming left that production to helm Gone with the Wind (1939); Vidor was not credited for his work.
Taken from a Reader's Digest article, Vidor's drama Our Daily Bread was, the film proclaimed, "inspired by headlines of today." So firm was Vidor's belief in the merit of the project he produced it with his own money. He later said he "just about broke even."
Like his phenomenal silent picture The Crowd, about the soulless, inhumane machinery of city life, Our Daily Bread has at its heart an empathy for people, and the daily economic and moral struggles that complicate their lives, especially during national crises like the Great Depression. The film's goodhearted message about cooperation and honest work did not, however, endear it to the Hearst press who dubbed Our Daily Bread "pinko."
The New York Times was more complimentary, calling the film "a social document of amazing vitality and emotional impact."
Vidor has remained, along with Frank Capra, John Ford and D.W. Griffith, one of the essential native voices in American cinema. Charles Higham and Joel Greenberg rightfully call the director, "a poet of Americana." But Vidor wasn't the only idealist onboard Our Daily Bread. Actress Karen Morley, who played the devoted, but infidelity-fearful wife Mary Sims, was also a progressive thinker, though her beliefs got her into serious trouble. Morley was eventually fingered by actor Sterling Hayden as a suspected Communist Party member and blacklisted by the House Un-American Activities Committee. She never made another film.
Vidor saw Our Daily Bread as the second film after The Big Parade as his War-Wheat-Steel trilogy. An American Romance (1944), about an immigrant who rises from the iron mines and steel mills of America to become an industrialist, was the third film in that trilogy.
Nominated for a Best Director Academy Award five times, Vidor was eventually given an honorary Oscar® in 1979 and was honored with an annual King Vidor Film Festival in his hometown of Galveston.
Director: King Vidor
Producer: King Vidor
Screenplay: Story by King Vidor, scenario by Elizabeth Hill, dialogue by Joseph Mankiewicz
Cinematography: Robert Planck
Music: Alfred Newman
Cast: Karen Morley (Mary Sims), Tom Keene (John Sims), Barbara Pepper (Sally), Addison Richards (Louie Fuente), John Qualen (Chris), Lloyd Ingraham (Uncle Anthony).
by Felicia Feaster
Our Daily Bread (1934)
The title frame of the viewed print included the qualifier: "Inspired by the Headlines of Today." Director King Vidor describes the genesis of the picture in his autobiography: "I wanted to take my two protagonists out of The Crowd [a 1928 silent film directed by Vidor] and follow them through the struggles of a typical young American couple in this most difficult period [the Depression]. I started by clipping every article relating to the subject from the local newspapers. Then I read a short article by a college professor in Reader's Digest. It proposed the organization of co-operatives as a solution to the unemployment problem." (According to a publicity item included in the copyright records, the article was titled "The Agricultural Army.") Not under contract to any studio, Vidor first took his idea to Irving G. Thalberg at M-G-M, according to Vidor's autobiography, and although Thalberg was enthusiastic about the concept, he was unable to sell it to his studio and told Vidor that it was not "an appropriate subject for M-G-M." Vidor says: "The fact that my characters were unemployed and down to their last few pennies seemed to scare the studios. They seemed intrigued by the story...but all the major companies were afraid to make a film without glamor, even though admitting that the struggle depicted was a heroic one."
Modern sources and Vidor's autobiography describe how the production progressed: In the summer of 1933, Vidor took his idea to Merian C. Cooper at RKO Radio Pictures and offered to forego his directorial salary in exchange for a production deal. Cooper was more than agreeable and instructed RKO's legal department to draw up a one-picture contract in which Vidor would receive $25,000 in advance against a 50% equity in the gross receipts after double negative costs. In exchange, Vidor was expected to post a $50,000 bond for the any production cost over the studio's $250,000 budget. While his contract was being written, Vidor and his wife, screenwriter Elizabeth Hill, began working on a script based on the articles. RKO hired various writers, including John Bright, a Chicago journalist and screenwriter, to assist them. Bright contributed the character of "Sally" to the story. In addition, Vidor's good friend, Charlie Chaplin, offered story suggestions. (According to New York Times review, Vidor got the idea for the character of "Louie" from Chaplin.) By the end of November 1933, however, RKO's New York legal department concluded that because the terms of Vidor's contract could result in the director earning more profits than the studio, the deal was untenable. For the next few months, Cooper fought the decision of the New York office but got nowhere. Finally, after being turned down by all the major studios, Vidor decided to finance the picture himself and formed Viking Productions on February 9, 1934, with himself as president and sole stockholder.
Before any banks would lend him production money, however, Vidor had to find a distributor. He appealed to Chaplin, one of the owners of United Artists, for support. Although with Chaplin's help, Vidor secured a tentative releasing agreement with United Artists, he still was unable to get a bank loan because "when a banker reads a script in which a bank forces a sheriff to make a foreclosure sale which a disreputable-looking group of neighbors won't permit, he doesn't feel kindly toward your venture."
Despite his lack of financial backing, Vidor started production work in mid-March 1934 and advanced $89,628 of his own money to the effort. According to a mid-March 1934 Hollywood Reporter news item, Vidor moved his cast and crew from General Studios, where he had preparing for two months, to United Artists' Studios. To save money on location shooting, Vidor rented part of an abandonded golf course in Tarzana, near Los Angeles, and erected tents to house the cast and crew. According to copyright materials, some of the farm scenes in the film were shot at Edgar Rice Burrough's 160-acre ranch, "Tarzana." Several weeks into filming, Vidor finally received a $125,000 loan from Bank of America, with the proviso that he mortgage his remaining assets.
Because he saw the picture as a continuation of The Crowd, Vidor's first impulse was to cast James Murray, the star of The Crowd, in the lead. However, when he discovered that Murray had slipped deeply into alcoholism, he gave up on the idea and cast Tom Keene, an actor he thought resembled Murray. In addition to choosing a Murray look-alike, Vidor also gave Keene's and Karen Morley's characters the same first names as their equivalents in The Crowd. According to a February 1934 Hollywood Reporter news item, Arline Judge was under consideration for a role in the film. Modern sources claim that Adele Thomas also was tested for a role. Hollywood Reporter production charts include Henry Burroughs in the cast, but his participation in the final film has not been confirmed. Although Harry Holman is credited in many contemporary and modern sources as playing the part of "Uncle Anthony," Lloyd Ingraham actually appeared in the role.
In his autobiography, Vidor describes his technique for shooting the final ditch digging sequence: "We dispensed with all sound-recording equipment and used instead a metronome and a bass drum. The picks came down on the counts of one and three, the shovels scooped dirt on count two and tossed it on four. Each scene was enacted in strict 4/4 time with the metronome's speed gradually increasing on each cut. When the increased speed of the metronome resounding through the bass drum had driven the diggers to their most feverish pitch, we then resorted to decreasing the camera speed gradually, which in turn further increased the tempo of the workers." This sequence took ten days to stage and photograph. When the production ran over schedule, somes scenes were changed to cut costs. The total cost of filming was a modest $102,811, and the negative cost was $150,339. Vidor recalls that he eventually recouped his initial investment but never made significant money on the picture. A late May 1934 Hollywood Reporter news item claimed that Vidor hired a 35-person "synchronizing and editing staff" and spread them over a 24-hour work schedule in order to ready the film for its release.
A August 1, 1934 Film Daily news item notes that the picture had its premiere in Chicago at the "Century of Progress" exhibition. The opening was attended by 15,000 people, including international celebrities, area civic and industrial leaders, newspapermen and the governors of Illinois, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Rhode Island, Vermont and South Carolina. In early October 1934, the picture had a special White House screening, which President Roosevelt attended, according to Film Daily. The Daily Variety running time of ninety minutes suggests that the film was cut by at least ten minutes before its general release. It is possible that some of the above-listed supporting actors were cut from the final film.
According to Vidor's autobiography, the film won second prize in the annual film exhibition in Moscow, and also won a League of Nations award "for its contribution to humanity." In 1935, the film was distributed under the title The Miracle of Life, according to AMPAS records. Although United Artists distributed the film in its initial release, Astor Pictures Corp., which was credited on the viewed film, eventually took over distribution. Modern sources note that Astor sold the picture as an exploitation film and retitled it Hell's Crossroads.